I’ve recently made it a personal goal of mine to achieve a better understanding of JavaScript. It’s not that I’m terrible at using the language; I’ve been developing with it using a variety of tools and frameworks like jQuery and Backbone.js for almost a year now, and have learned plenty in that time.

The problem is that I don’t feel like I know the language. I’d be pretty useless in any sort of philosophical discussion about it, and I certainly wouldn’t want to be on any committee deciding what is going into the specification for the next edition of ECMAScript. However, I’d like to change that.

The following is the first of hopefully many informative pieces on the JavaScript language. It may be pedantic at times, but my goal is to understand these gritty details so that I can appreciate the language both top-down and bottom-up.

# First-Class Functions

Functions are objects in JavaScript, and as such are values. This is weird coming from languages like Java, but the concept quickly starts to make a lot of sense. Being able to pass around a function as a callback is one obvious example where this can be very powerful, as we don’t have to construct one-off objects with methods defined.

The one thing differentiating functions from objects is that they can be invoked.

# What’s this?

• Variables which are within its lexical scope (via a closure)
• Arguments passed to it via its parameters
• A variable this

How the this variable is initialized depends on how the function was invoked.

## Function Invocation

Any standalone function which is invoked as-is (i.e. it is not invoked as the property of an object) will have this initialized to the global object (the browser window, in this case).

As Crockford points out in JavaScript: The Good Parts, it would have been much smarter if the language set this to be the whatever the value of this was in its outer context. This way you could have helper functions within your functions that could access the same this as the function they’re contained within, in theory making them more useful.

Luckily, an easy workaround is to just assign a different variable name to this and access it within the helper function.

## Method Invocation

Any time a function that is a property of an object is invoked, this will be initialized to the object in question. This makes sense for most programmers who come from classical object-oriented languages, and is thus perhaps the most intuitive.

Notice that while the function was originally declared as a standalone function, since we made a property of obj a reference to that echoThis and invoked it from that property, this was initialized to obj.

## Constructor Invocation

In order to appeal to programmers coming from classical languages, JavaScript awkwardly included the new keyword in order to make object creation seem a little more familiar. Unfortunately, it clouds JavaScript’s prototypal nature, and ends up being a somewhat odd hack in the language.

Functions invoked via new result in the creation of an object with its prototype linked to the function’s prototype, and this bound to the newly created object. This allows you to do something like the following:

## Apply Invocation

Despite all the different kinds of invocations outlined above, there still come times where you may want to explicitly assign a value to a functions this variable. JavaScript’s Function object has an apply method which allows you to specify a binding context for this and an array of arguments to pass to the function (the term applying a function to its arguments comes from the mathematical definition of a function).

# Suddenly It All Makes Sense

Before learning the four different kinds of function invocation, the this variable came across as a strange and seemingly unpredictable entity. After learning them, however, I find myself using bind less often, as I used to use it at times when it wasn’t necessary. It’s another example of how understanding your tools deeply has a tremendous impact on how you use them.

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